Sir Fredrick Hoyle developed an idea named ‘steady state‘ to embody the concept that matter could be created ex nihilo (out of nothing.) Sir Fredrick Hoyle assumed that matter is being created continually out of nothing, that the universe is an organism that continually produces matter.
According to Hoyle “matter is capable of exerting several types of influence or fields as they are usually called. There is the nuclear field that binds together the atomic nuclei. There is the electro-magnetic field that enables atoms to absorb light. There is the gravitational field that holds together stars and galaxies. Matter originates in response to the influence of other matter.”
Today, physicists create electrons in the vacuum of an accelerator, from nothing. We’ve also created pairs of positive/negative protons out of nothing. We should remember that electrons can be created from photons of light. Light has no mass, but electrons do. Photons at the speed of light are transformed possessing mass. This is called the mass-energy transformation equations or E=mc2.
Einstein had it right when he spoke of mathematics, the subatomic world and the limits of using probability as explanation.
“We believe in the possibility of a theory giving a complete description of reality, the laws establishing relations between things themselves and NOT merely between their probabilities.” Albert Einstein
The ancient Greek philosopher Thales was the first person to systematically seek to understand the sources of motion and change. Today we know there are four sources that cause motion.
- Gravity: gravitational interaction enables us to position, manipulate the orbits of satellites, calculate the trajectory of lunar missions as well as understand the orbits of other planets. It remains the first source for understanding the cause of motion. However, contemporary theory assumes that gravity takes the form of a wave called ‘gravitons; the most interesting component or feature of gravity it that is almost always irreversible, meaning that it always attracts never repels.
- Electromagnetic: this is an electric charge on particles that produce a magnetic field. Similar to how signals transmit through the air for wi-fi or across neural pathways of the brain, electromagnetism possess characteristics of great versatility.
- Strong Force: no, it isn’t Star Wars! A super strong force holds together the atoms that makeup the nucleus; because protons have a positive charge, they naturally repel each other, DESPITE THIS, the atomic nucleus holds together ANYWAY. This “STRONG INTERACTION” holding together an ordered nucleus is hundreds of times stronger than electromagnatism.
- Weak Force: this force works on/operates on a family of particles (electrons, muons, talons, neutrinos.) Both the STRONG/WEAK FORCE are basically characteristics of the subatomic world.
Two points of interest to consider: since the Enlightenment, the west has allowed itself to be overwhelmed by positive science which today embody the pejorative term “scientism“. We known there are other distinct valuations outside the verities of mathematics that embody truth claims consistent with the limitations of realism, idealism, empiricism etc. . .
Two guys should help you discern how best to go forward. . .
“What has been thought of as a particle will have to be though of as a series of events. The series of events that replaces the particle has certain important physical properties, and therefore demands our attention but nothing more. Thus, ‘matter‘ is not a part of the ultimate material of the world, but merely a convenient way of collecting events into bundle.”
“At the basis of the whole modern view of the world lies the illusion that the so-called laws of nature are the explanation of natural phenomena.” Ludwig Wittgenstein Russell & Ludwig
When Heisenberg was asked by students to explain “what everything is made of” he quickly referred to Plato’s Timaeus, contrasting the thought of ancient Greek materialists. . . For Heisenberg, elemental particles composing the atom more closely resemble Platonic bodies than the atoms of Democritus.
The elementary particles of physics, like the regular bodies of Plato’s philosophy, are defined by the requirements of mathematical symmetry. They are not eternal and unchanging, and they can hardly be strictly called real. Therefore, in the beginning, for modern science, was the form, the mathematical pattern, not the material thing.
For Heisenberg then, a mathematical pattern is, in the final analysis, an intellectual concept. Like Faust, “in the beginning was the meaning“.
Matter has been dematerialized, not just as a philosophical concept, but as a constituent idea grounding contemporary physics. Matter is now understood from within the confines of ideas of charged relations, not objects. We must remember that at this depth, the direction of analysis changes, we’re now promoting a conceptual change that isn’t best handled throughout the medium of mathematics or any linear representation. Newtonian constructs of an exact determinable state, a point of shape or absolute solidity, are properties electrons do not have.
“Nature loves to hide.” Heraclitus
“Reality is the real business of physics”. Einstein
“Just as Newton shattered the medieval crystal spheres, modern quantum theory has irreparably smashed Newton’s clockwork. We are now certain that the world is not a deterministic mechanism”. Nick Herbert
Democritus was the first Greek philosopher to theorize that matter was composed of atoms, which he pictured as small indivisible pieces of solid matter called ‘atoms’ from the Greek word ‘tome’ meaning “uncuttable”. This postulate remained in place throughout the early 20th century, whereupon physicists discovered that these atoms where composed on smaller charged components. This sub-atomic paradigm isn’t composed of material at all, instead, what we find are charged relations, energy, force fields of charged relations. This is why the human eye or any medium embodying linear stress isn’t the proper instrument to explain the subatomic world of charged relations; hearing is! Given the wests predominant use of linearity, physicists aren’t going to understand what they ‘see’ until their taught how to listen. Let me explain.
The atom is composed of protons, electrons, neutrons. This is known as the nucleus, its organized in the shape of a football or doorknob. It is primarily spherical or distorted into essentially the same particle in different energy states. They are bound together by a force called a pion. The exchange of pions creates the strong nuclear force that binds the atomic nucleus together. The creation of atom smashers allowed us to discern families of particles held together by strong/weak forces alternating. These high energy particle accelerators permitted the discovery that each family particle (either weak/strong) had anti-particles. Until the 1960’s, chaos theory was used to explain this behavior. It was ‘quark‘ theory that was used to explain the behavior of particles in the nucleus subject to the strong force. Hundreds of particles have been discovered to exist in the heart of the nucleus. The hundreds of different particles that make up the nucleus come from varying combinations of quarks & antiquarks. For instance, the proton & neutron are made up of three quarks each. Even the pion is made up of two quarks. Between 1968-1984 we discerned a total of 6 quarks with basic properties known. This is called the quark level organization. This means that everything in the universe is explained in terms of combinations of quarks and their force fields.
Wait, it gets better.
Each quark comes in three distinct colors making a total of 18 varying quarks. Wait. Each quark has an antiquark, so the total is 36. We postulate that the force binding the components of the quark are called gluons, they carry the charge between quarks. These relations are called quantum electrodynamics (QED) * quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
Why is this significant?
Welcome to a new post-Cartesian, Newtonian/Kantian world of the dematerialization of matter.
“To myself, I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself and now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, while the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.” Newton
The late great Catholic thinker Peter Drucker once remarked that the single greatest skill one’s parents can depart upon their child is the demonstrative capacity to be effective. There are antecedents to this that most educators ignore, given our exclusive propensity toward positivist endeavors, we ignore the very culture in which discovery or the skill of discovering is learned.
An American Protestant theologian, named Francis McConnell (d. 1953), wrote in his diary of a powerful experience he had in elementary school. He was assigned algebra homework and the very last question perplexed him enough that he went to bed without finishing it. Upon waking, an image came to mind of its solution. He immediately recognized that his subconscious mind was working on the equation while asleep.
The term ‘intuition’ has been irrevocably damaged by Immanual Kant. For Kantian epistemology, intuition is akin to sense perception of a given exterior object. In reality, the term encapsulates much more. The agnostic psychologist Carl Jung had a much better appreciation of how intuition is shaped within the contours of extraordinary exertion. For when the ‘entire’ person engages reality the subconscious mind works to assemble data that is preconscious or precognitive. These relations aren’t empirical or positivist, but they exert influence on perception, conception and judgment. Strictly speaking, these intuitions are embodied as an emotional reserve shaping resolution. Remember the agrarian adage, “when the whole person is engaged, there is no work!”
It was the same for Isaac Newton.