“Reality is the real business of physics”. Einstein
“Just as Newton shattered the medieval crystal spheres, modern quantum theory has irreparably smashed Newton’s clockwork. We are now certain that the world is not a deterministic mechanism”. Nick Herbert
Democritus was the first Greek philosopher to theorize that matter was composed of atoms, which he pictured as small indivisible pieces of solid matter called ‘atoms’ from the Greek word ‘tome’ meaning “uncuttable”. This postulate remained in place throughout the early 20th century, whereupon physicists discovered that these atoms where composed on smaller charged components. This sub-atomic paradigm isn’t composed of material at all, instead, what we find are charged relations, energy, force fields of charged relations. This is why the human eye or any medium embodying linear stress isn’t the proper instrument to explain the subatomic world of charged relations; hearing is! Given the wests predominant use of linearity, physicists aren’t going to understand what they ‘see’ until their taught how to listen. Let me explain.
The atom is composed of protons, electrons, neutrons. This is known as the nucleus, its organized in the shape of a football or doorknob. It is primarily spherical or distorted into essentially the same particle in different energy states. They are bound together by a force called a pion. The exchange of pions creates the strong nuclear force that binds the atomic nucleus together. The creation of atom smashers allowed us to discern families of particles held together by strong/weak forces alternating. These high energy particle accelerators permitted the discovery that each family particle (either weak/strong) had anti-particles. Until the 1960’s, chaos theory was used to explain this behavior. It was ‘quark‘ theory that was used to explain the behavior of particles in the nucleus subject to the strong force. Hundreds of particles have been discovered to exist in the heart of the nucleus. The hundreds of different particles that make up the nucleus come from varying combinations of quarks & antiquarks. For instance, the proton & neutron are made up of three quarks each. Even the pion is made up of two quarks. Between 1968-1984 we discerned a total of 6 quarks with basic properties known. This is called the quark level organization. This means that everything in the universe is explained in terms of combinations of quarks and their force fields.
Wait, it gets better.
Each quark comes in three distinct colors making a total of 18 varying quarks. Wait. Each quark has an antiquark, so the total is 36. We postulate that the force binding the components of the quark are called gluons, they carry the charge between quarks. These relations are called quantum electrodynamics (QED) * quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
Why is this significant?