Sir Fredrick Hoyle developed an idea named ‘steady state‘ to embody the concept that matter could be created ex nihilo (out of nothing.) Sir Fredrick Hoyle assumed that matter is being created continually out of nothing, that the universe is an organism that continually produces matter.
According to Hoyle “matter is capable of exerting several types of influence or fields as they are usually called. There is the nuclear field that binds together the atomic nuclei. There is the electro-magnetic field that enables atoms to absorb light. There is the gravitational field that holds together stars and galaxies. Matter originates in response to the influence of other matter.”
Today, physicists create electrons in the vacuum of an accelerator, from nothing. We’ve also created pairs of positive/negative protons out of nothing. We should remember that electrons can be created from photons of light. Light has no mass, but electrons do. Photons at the speed of light are transformed possessing mass. This is called the mass-energy transformation equations or E=mc2.
Einstein had it right when he spoke of mathematics, the subatomic world and the limits of using probability as explanation.
“We believe in the possibility of a theory giving a complete description of reality, the laws establishing relations between things themselves and NOT merely between their probabilities.” Albert Einstein